Use of Lactobacillus fermentum for improving fermentation degree of smallholder dried cocoa beans

Main Article Content

Ariza Budi Tunjung-Sari
Misnawi Jati
Noor Ariefandie Febrianto
Teguh Wahyudi


In an attempt to improve the quality of dried cocoa beans produced from small holder farming in Indonesia, experiment of cocoa beans and Lactobacillus fermentum (LF) was conducted. LF culture at concentration 5% w/w was added into dried cocoa beans and incubated for four days. Treated beans were sun dried and evaluated for slaty and purple appearance on the nibs, as well as defects and sensory quality. This study reports a significant decrease in the proportion of slaty and purple beans in the treated groups either in smaller (30 kg) or in the larger (150 kg) scales. The moulded bean number surged, but moulded beans was already present in the untreated group. The sensory profile was obtaining higher scores on the chocolate flavor, bitterness and astringency attributes. It is concluded that LF culture could be used for improving the physical and sensory qualities of cocoa beans from small holder farmers.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tunjung-Sari, A., Jati, M., Febrianto, N., & Wahyudi, T. (2020). Use of Lactobacillus fermentum for improving fermentation degree of smallholder dried cocoa beans. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal), 35(3), 205-211.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    1. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    1. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


Author Biography

Ariza Budi Tunjung-Sari, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

Post Harvest Laboratory
Rifin, A. (2013). Competitiveness of Indonesia's cocoa beans export in the world market. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 4(5), 279.
Nabhani, I., Daryanto, A., Yassin, M., & Rifin, A. (2015). Can Indonesia cocoa farmers get benefit on global value chain inclusion? a literature review. Asian Social Science, 11(18), 288.
Misnawi, M., Tunjungsari, A. B., Febrianto, N. A., Adiandri, R. S., Fahrizal, F., & Fahrurrozi, F. (2017). Improvement of Small Scale Cocoa Fermentation Using Lactobacillus fermentumas Starter Culture. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal), 33(3), 203-210.
BSN, 2010. Standar Nasional Indonesia SNI 2323:2008 Amandemen 1:2010 Biji Kakao. Jakarta, Badan Standardisasi Nasional.
Farah, D. M. H., & Zaibunnisa, A. H. (2012). Optimization of cocoa beans roasting process using response surface methodology based on concentration of pyrazine and acrylamide. International Food Research Journal, 19 (4), 1351-1354
De Vuyst, L., & Weckx, S. (2016). The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 121(1), 5-17.
Misnawi, S. J., Nazamid, S., & Jamilah, B. (2002). Activation of remaining key enzymes in dried under-fermented cocoa beans and its effect on aroma precursor formation. Food Chemistry, 78(4), 407-417.
Misnawi, Jinap, S., Jamilah, B., & Nazamid, S. (2003). Effects of incubation and polyphenol oxidase enrichment on colour, fermentation index, procyanidins and astringency of unfermented and partly fermented cocoa beans. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38(3), 285-295.
Ghazvini, R. D., Kouhsari, E., Zibafar, E., Hashemi, S. J., Amini, A., & Niknejad, F. (2016). Antifungal activity and aflatoxin degradation of bifidobacterium bifidum and lactobacillus fermentum against toxigenic aspergillus parasiticus. The Open Microbiology Journal, 10, 197.
Papalexandratou, Z., Lefeber, T., Bahrim, B., Lee, O. S., Daniel, H. M., & De Vuyst, L. (2013). Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process. Food Microbiology, 35(2), 73-85.
Ruggirello, M., Nucera, D., Cannoni, M., Peraino, A., Rosso, F., Fontana, M., ... & Dolci, P. (2019). Antifungal activity of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria isolated from cocoa bean fermentations. Food Research International, 115, 519-525.

Most read articles by the same author(s)