Published Aug 31, 2009
Main Article Content
Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute
Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- Misnawi Jati, Susijahadi ., Jinap Selamat, Teguh Wahyudi, Novrita Putriani, Effects of Alkali Concentration and Conching Temperature on Flavour, Hardness and Colour of Chocolate , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 22 No 2 (2006)
- Misnawi Jati, Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 24 No 3 (2008)
- Misnawi Jati, Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 26 No 3 (2010)
- Misnawi Jati, Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari, Analysis of Pyrazine and Volatile Compounds in Cocoa Beans Using Solid Phase Microextraction , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 27 No 1 (2011)
- Misnawi Jati, Effects of Fructose and Tapioca Flour on physical and Sensory Properties of Chocolate Bar , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 27 No 3 (2011)
- D.M.H. A.H. Farah, Zaibunnisa, A.H Zaibunnisa, A.H, Misnawi Jati, Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 28 No 1 (2012)
- Ariza Budi Tunjung-Sari, Teguh Wahyudi, Diana Chusna Mufida, Mekania Tamarizki, Desyana Perwitahati, Ihda Kartika Syamsuddin, Misnawi Jati, Use of cocoa ethanolic extract for treatment of Staphylococcal infection in rabbit-skin model , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 32 No 1 (2016)
- Ariza Budi Tunjung, Misnawi Jati, Pratiwi Pudjiastuti, Afaf Baktir, Uterus Weight of Ovariectomized Rats Given Cocoa Powder and Extract , Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal): Vol 33 No 1 (2017)