Architecture of Cocoa Genotypes in Colombia as Affected by Bud Type, Grafting Technique, and Pruning

Main Article Content

Maria Denis Lozano Tovar
Jose Arboney Guzman
Luis Enrique Ramirez
Jairo Garcia


Organization of plant aerial parts and root distribution, environmental conditions such as light, temperature, humidity and agronomic practices (grafting and pruning) influences the final architecture of the plant. Most of cocoa plantations in Colombia belong to the plagiotropic type that emit branches and suckers in a disorderly way, which leads to an unbalanced development, this makes it difficult to manage. To search for cocoa plants with better architecture, we evaluated the effect of the type of the bud (orthotropic and plagiotropic), the grafting techniques (approximation and patch grafting) and pruning (structural and conventional) on ICS 95 and CCN 51 clones. The monitoring was carried out at an open greenhouse and field. Plants obtained from orthotropic buds and approximation grafting had lower bifurcation angles, 42% more leaves and 50% more branches. The structural pruning had a positive influence on the architectural variables, which presenteda higher conversion (8.68%) of fresh weight of cocoa pod into dry weight of cocoa beans, meanwhile CCN 51 trees showed a higher conversion (9.76%) compared to ICS 95 (7.34%). CCN 51 had the highest bean index (1.30) and the lowest pod index (22.0). This study demonstrated that structural pruning improved bean indexand pod index. We concluded that for CCN 51 by approximation grafting technique is a good alternative for a tropical dry forest, as its production between 1995 and 2277 kg of dry cocoa beans ha-1 year-1.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lozano Tovar, M., Guzman, J., Ramirez, L., & Garcia, J. (2022). Architecture of Cocoa Genotypes in Colombia as Affected by Bud Type, Grafting Technique, and Pruning. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal), 38(1), 29-42.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    1. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    1. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


Arguello, O. 2000. Características morfoagronómicas de clones de cacao. In Tecnología para el Mejoramiento del Sistema de Producción del Cacao. Colombia, Corpoica. p. 55-64.
Barthélémy, D. & Y Caraglio. 2007. Plant architecture: A dynamic multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny. Ann. Bot. 99:375-407.
Chindi, E., Ebenezer, M., Kenneth & E. 2015. Tree crown architecture: Approach to tree form, structure and performance: A review. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 5:1-6
Crespo, E. y Crespo, F. 1997. Cultivo y beneficio del cacao CCN51. Guayaquil: Editorial El Conejo.
Givnish, T. 1995. Roles of stem architecture in plant performance. In: Plant stems physiological and functional morphology. Gartner B. (Ed). Academic Press. Inc. California. 3-41 pp.
Guiltinan, M., Miller, C.R., Traore, A., Maximova. S.N. 2000. Greenhouse and field evaluation of orthotropic cacao plants produced via somatic embryogenesis, micro and macropropagation. Proceedings of the 13th International Cocoa Research Conference. October 9-14. 2000. Kota Kinbalu. Sabah. Malaysia. 323-330.
Kufa-Obso, T. 2006. Growth architecture of the wild Arabica Coffee trees. In: Ecophysiological diversity of wild Arabica coffee populations in Ethiopia: Growth, water relations and hydraulic characteristics along a climatic gradient. Center for Development Research. University of Bonn. Bonn 55-80 pp.
Lee, M.T. 2000. Recent experiences in field use of cocoa clones for large-scale commercial planting in Malaysia: pros and cons. Proceedings of the ‗Technical Meeting‘: State of knowledge on mass production of genetically improved propagules of cocoa. October 19th to 23rd. 1998. Ilhéus. Bahia. Brazil. 117-121.
Miller, C.R., Guiltinan, M.J. 2003. Perspectives on Rapid Vegetative Multiplication for Orthotropic Scion and Rootstock Varieties of Cocoa. In: Bekele. F.. End. M.J.. Eskes. A.B. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding for Improved Production Systems. 19th-21st Oct.. Accra. Ghana. 189-194.
Miller. C.R. 2009. An integrated in vitro and greenhouse orthotropic clonal propagation system for Theobroma Cacao L. Thesis doctoral. Pennsylvania State University. 157 p
Mooleedhar, V. 2000. A review of vegetative propagation methods in cocoa in Trinidad and the implications for mass production of clonal cocoa plants. Proceedings of the Technical Meeting‘: State of knowledge on mass production of genetically improved propagules of cocoa. October 19th to 23rd. 1998. Ilhéus. Bahia. Brazil. 122-125. De Moraes. K.A.T.. (ed.) 2001. Biofábrica: Informativo do Instituto Biofábrica do Cacau. 1(4): 4pp.
Muller, M. W.; Valle, R. R. 2012. Ecofisiologia do cultivo do cacaueiro pp. 31 - 66 En (R. R. Valle, ed.) "Ciência, Tecnologia e Manejo do Cacaueiro", Brasilia, DF (Brasil).
Phillips-Mora W., Arciniegas-Leal A., Mata-Quirós A., y Motamayor-Arias J.C. 2012. Catálogo de clones de cacao seleccionados por el Catie para siembras comerciales. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Programa de Mejoramiento Genético de Cacao Programa. Agroambiental Mesoamericano - Proyecto Cacao Centroamérica. Turrialba, Costa Rica
Pooter, H., Remkes, C. 1990. Leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate. Oecologia 83: 553-559.
Reinhardt, D. & Kuhlemeier, C. 2002. Plant architecture. EMBO reports. 3:846-851.
Konam, J., Namaliu, Y., Daniel, R. & Guest D. 2008. Integrated Pest and Disease Management for Sustainable Cocoa Production. A training manual for farmers and extension workers. 36pp. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Fahmid. I.M.; Harun, H., Fahmid, M.M., Saadah and Busthanul.N. 2018. competitiveness, production, and productivity of cocoa in Indonesia. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 157. doi :10.1088/1755-1315/157/1/012067.

Most read articles by the same author(s)