Growth and Plant Architecture of Several Introduced Coffea canephora Clones Under Different Shade Levels

Main Article Content

Fitria Yuliasmara
Ucu Sumirat
Karuniawan Puji Wicaksono
Eko Widaryanto


Introducing superior plants is one of the efforts to increase coffee produc- tivity in Indonesia. Three clones from France de Torino (FRT), FRT 07, FRT 09, and FRT 65, have been introduced to Indonesia. However, their cultivation is not widely distributed yet. Analysis of the responses of FRT clones against differences in climate and cultivation is needed to determine the right cultivation system to produce maximum growth and productivity. This study examines the vegetative growth of FRT clones introduced at some levels of shade. The study employed a split-plot design with 36 experimental units. The primary factor was the levels of shade consisting: without shade, 25% of shade, 50% of shade, and 100% of shade. The three introduced FRT clones (FRT 07, FRT 09, and FRT 65) were used as the subplot. Observations were done on several growth variables. The results showed that shade treatment affected all growth parameters and plant architecture. Clones significiantly affected plant height, orthotropic internode length, number of leaves, and average leaf area. Increased levels of shade caused an increase in internode length, branch angle, and crown diameter but decrease in number of internodes and leaves. A low level of shade (25%) produced an optimal value on parameters related to the productivity of FRT coffee plants, such as the number of plagiotropic internodes and the number of leaves. Parameters related to vegetative growth, such as plant height, stem diameter, and internode length, showed optimal values in a moderate level of shade (50%). Treatment without shade and a heavy shade resulted in impaired growth of FRT coffee. There was no interaction between levels of shade and clone treatment on most of the variables related to plant morphology, which indicated that the three introduced FRT clones gave relatively similar response to shade; thus, the three clones can be managed with the same shade management.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yuliasmara, F., Sumirat, U., Wicaksono, K., & Widaryanto, E. (2022). Growth and Plant Architecture of Several Introduced Coffea canephora Clones Under Different Shade Levels. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal), 38(3), 155-170.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    1. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    1. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


Alexander, I and H. J. Nadapdap. (2019). Analisis Daya Saing Ekspor Biji Kopi Indonesia Di Pasar Global Tahun 2002-2017. JSEP, 12(2),1-16.
Arisandi, D.P. (2015). Respon Karakteristik Fisiologi dan Pertumbuhan Bibit Kopi Robusta (Coffea canephora) Klon BP 358 dan BP 308 pada Berbagai Tingkat Naungan. Jember, Indonesia, Skripsi.
Harjanti, RA., Tohari, SNH Utami. (2014). Pengaruh Takaran Pupuk Nitrogen dan Silika Terhadap Pertumbuhan Awal Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) Pada Inceptisol. Vegetalika,3(2), 35-44.
Mawardi, S and R. Hulupi. (2003). Hasil pengujian daya adaptasi klon-klon unggul harapan kopi Robusta, Warta Pusat Penelitian Kopi and Kakao Indonesia, 19, 83-90.
Morais, H., C. J. Marur, P. H. Caramori, A. M. A. Ribeiro and J. C. Gomes. (2003). Physiological characteristics and growth of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeonpea and unshaded. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 38, 1131-1137.
Partelli, F. L., A. V. Araújo, H. D. Vieira, J. R. M. Dias, L. F. T. Menezes and J. C. Ramalho. (2014). Microclimate and development of 'Conilon' coffee intercropped with rubber trees. Pesqui Agropecu Bras, 49(11), 872-881.
Bonomo, P., C. D. Cruz, J. M. S. Viana, A. A. Pereira, V. R. Oliveira and P. C. S. Carneiro. (2004). Avaliaa o de proginies obtidas de cruzamentos de descendentes do Hibrido de Timor com as cultivares Catuai Vermelho e Catuai Amarelo. Bragantia, 63, 207-219.
Tabagiba, S. D; E. A. Santos, J. E. M. Pezzopane and E. F. Reis. (2010). Coffea canephora seedlings in the under shading and full sun. Engenh Agr, 18(3), 219-226.
Taiz, L and E. Zeiger. (2006). Plant Physiology fourth edition. Sinauer Associates Inc Publisher. Sunderland. UK.
DaMatta, F.M. (2004). Ecophysiological constraints on the production of shaded and unshaded coffee: a review. Field Crops Research, 86, 99-114.
Panggabean, E. (2011). Buku Pintar Kopi. Agromedia Pusaka. 226p.
DaMatta, F. M, C. P. Ronchi, M. Maestri and R. S. Barros. (2008). Ecophysiology of coffee growth and production. Braz. J. Plant Physiol, 19(4), 485-510.
Sopandie, D. (2013). Fisiologi Adaptasi Tanaman terhadap Cekaman Abiotik pada Agroekosistem Tropika. Penerbit IPB Press. Bogor. 244p.
Sholikhah, U, D. A. Munandar dan A. Pradana. (2015). Karakter Fisiologis Klon Kopi Robusta BP 358 Pada Jenis Penaung Yang Berbeda. Agrovigor. 8(1), 58-67.
Campostrini, E and M. Maestri. (1998). Photosynthetic potential of five genotypes of Coffea canephora Pierre. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal, 10, 13-18.
Morais, H; C. J. Marur, P. H. Caramori, A. M. A. Ribeiro and J. C. Gomes. (2003). Physiological characteristics and growth of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeonpea and unshaded. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 38, 1131-1137.
Rodríguez, L; J. Verdecia, L. Arias, R. Medina and E. Velasco. (2001). Growth, relative water content, transpiration and photosynthetic pigment content in coffee trees (C. arabica l.) growing at different sunlight regimes. Cultivos Tropicales, 22(4), 37-41.
Salisbury and Ross. (1995). Fisiologi Tumbuhan Jilid 2. ITB. Bandung.
Espindula, M.C, L.F.B. de Araújo, R. Schmidt, J. R. M. Dias and R. B. Rocha. (2020). Early induction of orthotropic shoots in Coffea canephora. Revista Ceres, 67, 281-287.
Whiting D. (2010). Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Transpiration. Colorado State University.
Gardner, F. P. (1991). Fisiologi Tanaman Budidaya. UI Press. Jakarta. 428p.
Ariany, S.P., N. Sahiri, dan A. Syukur. (2013). Pengaruh Kuantitas Cahaya terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kadar Antosianin Daun Dewa. Agrotekbis, 1(5) , 413 – 420.
Ayalew, B. (2018). Impact of shade on morpho-physiological characteristics of coffee plants, their pests and diseases. a Review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(39), 2017-2024.
Campanha, M. M; R. H. S. Santos, G. B. D. Freitas, H. E. P. Martinez, S. L. R. Garcia and F. L. Finger. (2004). Growth and yield of coffee plants in agroforestry and monoculture systems in Minas Gerais Brazil. Agrofor. Syst, 63, 75-82.
Morais, H., P. H. Caramori, A. M. A. Ribeiro, J. C. Gomes and M. S. Koguishi. (2006). Microclimatic characterization and productivity of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeon pea in Southern Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 41, 763-770.
Yuliasmara, F. (2017). El Nino Effect on Coffee Growth and Productivity on Several Agroforestry Systems in Gumitir Mountain Coffee Farms, East Java, Indonesia. Pelita Perkebunan, 33(3),168-179.

Most read articles by the same author(s)