Yield Performance of the Promising Cocoa Hybrids (Theobroma cacaoL.) at Dry Climate Condition

Agung Wahyu Susilo

Abstract


Global climate change is impacting cocoa cultivation that cocoa trees must be adaptive in dry climate and higher temperature of environmental condition. This research had objective to observe adaptability performance of the promising hybrids of cocoa  ofthe selecting high yielding hybrid swhichare  tolerantto dry condition. Treatments were 14 hybrids of bi-clonal crosses betweenselected clones in factorial design in which KEE 2 was selected based on its resistance to vascular-streak dieback (VSD) and drought condition. Multilocation trials were established in Kaliwining Experimental Station in Jember (low land) and Sumber Asin Experimental Station in Malang (medium land) both of which were classified to dry land area. Yield per tree were assessed in monthly basis during 9 consecutive years of yield period. Data were performed to the combinedanalysis of variance followed by AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction). The results showed thatthe factor of hybrid, location, and interactionof hybrid and location to year contributed higher value of variance for the yield. Analysis of AMMI indicated that the hybrids of KEE 2 x Sulawesi 1 (F 1 and reciprocal) had highest yield potency and adaptive to low land (Kaliwining) on the other hand the hybrids of TSH 858 x KEE 2 (F 1 and reciprocal) were adaptive to medium land (Sumber Asin). Refer to yield adaptability to dry condition and other potential traits reported thus the hybrid of KEE 2 x Sulawesi 1 (F 1 and reciprocal) was released as cocoa planting material for addressing dry condition. The result also identified those hybrids inherited using KEE 2 performed more adaptive to dry condition. Further-more, the clone was suggested to be used as parental clone on breeding for drought tolerance.

Keywords


hybrid, Theobroma cacaoL., dry climate, yield perfomance

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/pelitaperkebunan.v34i1.303

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